Consumer Fact Sheets
For more information, please ask the staff for a consumer fact sheet during your admission.
BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS
Blood and blood products are a vital resource, sourced from the Australian and international donor community, and from commercial manufacture. The use of blood and blood products can be lifesaving, but there are also risks associated with their administration and use.
St Vincent’s Lismore has systems in place to identify risks, and put in place strategies, to ensure that a patient’s own blood is optimised and conserved, and that any blood and blood products the patient receives are appropriate and safe.
We aim to ensure that patients (and carers) are engaged in decisions about their management and, if they receive blood and blood products, they do so appropriately and safely.
Getting your blood fit for surgery (Patient Blood Management)
|Ask your GP or Surgeon to check your haemoglobin levels and iron stores|
|Do these before surgery|
|If you have low iron levels your GP or surgeon can treat this before your surgery|
The best blood for you is your own. Your blood is a valuable resource that we need to conserve. There are things we need to do to manage your blood appropriately before surgery. One of these is to boost your blood and address health conditions such as anaemia or iron deficiency. This may help you avoid a blood transfusion and the associated risk of complications. It can also help you recover faster and have a shorter stay in hospital.
Anaemia means that the level of red blood cells or the level of haemoglobin is lower than normal. This deprives the body of adequate oxygen. Anaemia before surgery increases the risk of other problems occurring. Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anaemia. Iron deficiency may also affect your ability to respond to any blood loss.
Talk to your GP or specialist so they can check if you have anaemia or low levels of iron. This is done with a simple blood test. It means these conditions can be addressed before your surgery. Ideally, this preparation should start 6 months before your surgery. If this can’t happen, talk to your doctor as soon as possible.
The fact sheet Fit for Surgery gives you some tips on what to discuss with your doctor. Fit for Surgery Fit for Life gives you some facts on iron and has a page for you to record any iron management. This is useful for you and your carer to bring to the clinic before your operation.
Iron is important to help make healthy red blood cells. Without healthy red blood cells your body cannot get enough oxygen. Iron is normally absorbed from your diet. If you don’t have enough iron, iron replacement can be given in two ways.
It can be taken as a tablet by mouth, or given intravenously, via a needle into your vein. Your doctor will decide which is the best method for you.
If you need to take iron tablets it is important to take them correctly. A guide to taking iron tablets gives you the right advice on how to do this and how to manage any side effects.
If you require an iron infusion to rapidly replace iron, the fact sheet Intravenous (IV) iron infusions gives you information about this.
|You can always ask your Doctor for more information|
Blood and Blood Product Transfusion
A blood transfusion is when blood or parts of blood are transferred from one person (a donor) and given to you. Parts of blood that can be transfused are red cells, plasma or platelets. The blood is transferred through a tube inserted with a needle into one of your veins. Blood is a very important resource that is donated freely by people in the community. The Health Service has a responsibility to ensure that all blood and blood products are used in a safe and appropriate way.
One of our obligations is to make sure that you are well informed about blood product transfusion and other treatment options. You will be asked to sign a consent form before you can be given any blood or blood products. It is important that you have the right information to help you make the right decisions about your care.
Blood transfusions may be lifesaving but they do carry a small amount of risk. The following publications provide helpful information for you and your family.
‘My guide to blood transfusions’ explains how you may reduce the chance of needing a transfusion, the risks, and the signs of a blood product transfusion reaction.
‘A general guide to blood transfusion’ provides you with information on blood product transfusion.
|If you have questions that are not answered by this information, you can always ask your Doctor|
We have a policy on getting your consent for any blood product transfusion. There are also strict procedures we must follow to make sure that you receive the correct blood in a safe way.
If your child needs a blood or blood product transfusion, the ‘Children receiving a blood transfusion: A Parents’ Guide’ offers good information. Asking the right questions can help you make informed decisions about your child’s care.
There is also information for your children to read. This may help your child feel less anxious about having a blood transfusion.
|Amazing You: Billy Blood Drop|
|Voyages on the Micro Sub Discovery|
|My First Transfusion – Alice’s Story|
Delayed reaction to transfusion
After receiving a blood or blood product transfusion, it is possible to have a delayed reaction. This reaction can occur between 24 hours and several days after the transfusion. You may have already gone home from hospital.
The ‘Delayed reactions after transfusion of blood and blood products‘ information sheet gives you advice on the symptoms of a reaction and what you need to do.
|If you think you are having a delayed reaction call your Doctor|
You may have a condition that needs treatment with immunoglobulin. Immunoglobulins are antibodies found in plasma. They are made by the body’s immune system to fight infection and disease.
There are two ways you can receive immunoglobulin medication. You will need to discuss with your doctor which is the most suitable for you.
Intravenous (IV) by way of a needle into a vein OR
Subcutaneous (SC) where a needle is inserted under the skin. This method is for self-administration outside the hospital and is not suitable for everyone.
Further Information – If you would like to read more information about blood and blood product transfusion or patient blood management you can click on any of the following links.
|NSW Blood Watch has an extensive resource list|
|Clinical Excellence Commission – Resource list|
|The National Blood Authority has links to the latest information for patients|
|National Blood Authority/Patients|
|The Australian Red Cross Blood Service has many fact sheets for donors and patients|
|Transfusion fact sheets | Australian Red Cross Blood Service|
|Australian & New Zealand Society of Blood Transfusion: Guidelines and Standards for Administration of Blood and Blood Products|
|Australian & NZ Society of Blood Transfusion|
Communication is a key safety and quality issue, and is critical to the delivery of safe patient care.
St Vincent’s Lismore recognises the importance of effective communication in health care and the essential role that communication plays in ensuring safe, coordinated and continuous care.
Our systems ensure timely, purpose driven and effective communication and documentation that support continuous, coordinated and safe care for patients.
INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Many healthcare-associated infections are thought to be preventable. Infection prevention and control practice aims to minimise the risk of transmission by identifying and isolating patients harbouring infectious agents and resistant organisms.
The intention of our infection prevention and control system here at St Vincent’s is to reduce the risk of patients acquiring preventable healthcare-associated infections, effectively management infections if they occur, and limit the development of antimicrobial resistance through prudent use of antimicrobials as part of antimicrobial stewardship.
Medicines are the most common treatment used in health care. Although appropriate use of medicines contributes to substantial improvements in health, medicines can also be associated with harm.
Medication management involved prescribing, dispensing, administering and monitoring medicines.
Our goal for medication safety is to ensure clinicians are competent to safely prescribe, dispense and administer appropriate medicines and to monitor medicine use. We also ensure consumers are informed about medicines and understand their individual medicine needs and risks.
Patient identification and the matching of a patient to an intended care process is a routine procedure in all healthcare facilities. However, risks to patient safety occur when there is a mismatch between a given patient and intended treatment.
Our system is comprehensive and organisation-wide to ensure the reliable identification of patients at each treatment episode.
Immobility, such as that associated with extended bed rest in hospital, can cause pressure injuries. Pressure injuries can occur in any patient with any or all of the associated risk factors. In the majority of cases, pressure injuries are preventable.
Our evidence-based system ensures that clinicians use the appropriate pressure injury prevention and management strategies to not only prevent such injuries but to effectively manage them if they do occur.
Falls-related injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in older Australians. Falls rates are greater for older people. Having an established system for the prevention of falls allows St Vincent’s, Lismore to ensure that a patient’s falls risk is recognised promptly, and appropriate action is taken.
Our systems ensure that a person’s acute deterioration is recognised promptly and appropriate action is taken. Acute deterioration includes physiological changes, as well as acute changes in condition and mental state.
Serious adverse events, such as unexpected death and cardiac arrest, are often preceded by observable physiological and clinical abnormalities.
Early identification of deterioration may improve outcomes and lessen the intervention required to stabilise patients whose condition deteriorates in a health service organisation.